Target localization in MIMO radar systems
Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering
Doctor of Philosophy
Blum, Rick S.
MIMO (Multiple-Input Multiple-Output) radar systems employ multiple antennas to transmit multiple waveforms and engage in joint processing of the received echoes from the target. MIMO radar has been receiving increasing attention in recent years from researchers, practitioners, and funding agencies. Elements of MIMO radar have the ability to transmit diverse waveforms ranging from independent to fully correlated. MIMO radar offers a new paradigm for signal processing research. In this dissertation, target localization accuracy performance, attainable by the use of MIMO radar systems, configured with multiple transmit and receive sensors, widely distributed over an area, are studied. The Cramer-Rao lower bound (CRLB) for target localization accuracy is developed for both coherent and noncoherent processing. The CRLB is shown to be inversely proportional to the signal effective bandwidth in the noncoherent case, but is approximately inversely proportional to the carrier frequency in the coherent case. It is shown that optimization over the sensors' positions lowers the CRLB by a factor equal to the product of the number of transmitting and receiving sensors. The best linear unbiased estimator (BLUE) is derived for the MIMO target localization problem. The BLUE's utility is in providing a closed-form localization estimate that facilitates the analysis of the relations between sensors locations, target location, and localization accuracy. Geometric dilution of precision (GDOP) contours are used to map the relative performance accuracy for a given layout of radars over a given geographic area. Coherent processing advantage for target localization relies on time and phase synchronization between transmitting and receiving radars. An analysis of the sensitivity of the localization performance with respect to the variance of phase synchronization error is provided by deriving the hybrid CRLB. The single target case is extended to the evaluation of multiple target localization performance. Thus far, the analysis assumes a stationary target. Study of moving target tracking capabilities is offered through the use of the Bayesian CRLB for the estimation of both target location and velocity. Centralized and decentralized tracking algorithms, inherit to distributed MIMO radar architecture, are proposed and evaluated. It is shown that communication requirements and processing load may be reduced at a relatively low performance cost.
njit-etd2010-020 (150 pages ~ 7,444 KB pdf)
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Created April 18, 2011