Boron and phosphorous implantation into (100) germanium : Modeling and investigation of dopant annealing behavior
Committee for the Interdisciplinary Program in Materials Science and Engineering
Doctor of Philosophy
Materials Science and Engineering
Levy, Roland A.
Carroll, Malcolm S.
Boron and phosphorous
Germanium is increasingly being considered at this time for future silicon compatible optoelectronic and complementary metal oxide semiconductor (CMOS) device application. Germanium implantation will be a critical process for future device fabrication. However, critical properties like Pearson parameters and dopant activation temperatures are not well established. In this study, boron and phosphorus were implanted into (100) germanium with energies ranging from 20 to 320 keV and doses of 5 x 1013 to 5 x 1016 cm-2. The behavior of the boron and phosphorus before and after annealing for 3 hours at 400, 600 or 800°C in ultra high purity nitrogen were characterized using secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS), spreading resistance profiling (SRP) measurements, Hall Effect measurement, X-ray diffraction (XRD) measurement, and Rutherford backscattering spectrometry (RB S). A predictive model for the implanted dopant distribution's dependence on energy was developed using the experimentally determined implant moments combined with Pearson distributions and the post-annealing electrical, structural and diffusion behavior was characterized. Results from numeric simulation and analytic calculations using Lindard-Scharff-Schiott (LSS) theory are presented to offer insight into the physics of the pre-annealed implanted dopant distributions.
njit-etd2004-097 (122 pages ~ 5,238 KB pdf)
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Created December 17, 2004