On-line state and parameter estimation in nonlinear systems
Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering
Doctor of Philosophy
Meyer, Andrew Ulrich
Chang, Timothy Nam
Blackmore, Denis L.
Nonlinear control theory.
Differential equations, Nonlinear.
Differential dynamical systems.
On-line, simultaneous state and parameters estimation in deterministic, nonlinear dynamic systems of known structure is the problem considered. Available methods are few and fall short of user needs in that they are difficult to apply, their applicability is restricted to limited classes of systems, and for some, conditions guaranteeing their convergence don't exist.
The new methods developed herein are placed into two categories: those that involve the use of Riccati equations, and those that do not. Two of the new methods do not use Riccati equations, and each is considered to be a different extension of Friedland' s parameter observer for nonlinear systems with full state availability to the case of partial state availability. One is essentially a reduced-order variant of a state and parameter estimator developed by Raghavan. The other is developed by the direct extension of Friedland' s parameter observer to the case of partial state availability. Both are shown to be globally asymptotically stable for nonlinear systems affine in the unknown parameters and involving nonlinearities that depend on known quantities, a class restriction also true of existing state and parameter estimation methods. The two new methods offer, however, the advantages of improved computational efficiency and the potential for superior transient performance, which is demonstrated in a simulation example.
Of the new methods that do involve a Riccati equation, there are three. The first is the separate-bias form of the reduced-order Kalman filter. The scope of this filter is somewhat broader than the others developed herein in that it is an optimal filter for linear, stochastic systems involving noise-free observations. To apply this filter to the joint state and parameter estimation problem, one interprets the unknown parameters as constant biases. For the system class defined above, the method is globally asymptotically stable.
The second Riccati equation based method is derived by the application of an existing method, the State Dependent Algebraic Riccati Equation (SDARE) filtering method, to the problem of state and parameter estimation. It is shown to work well in several nonlinear examples involving a few unknown parameters; however, as the number of parameters increases, the method's applicability is diminished due to an apparent loss of observability within the filter which hinders the generation of filter gains.
The third is a new filtering method which uses a State Dependent Differential Riccati Equation (SDDRE) for the generation of filter gains, and through its use, avoids the “observability” shortcomings of the SDARE method. This filter is similar to the Extended Kalman Filter (EKF), and is compared to the EKF with regard to stability through a Lyapunov analysis, and with regard to performance in a 4th order stepper motor simulation involving 5 unknown parameters. For the very broad class of systems that are bilinear in the state and unknown parameters, and potentially involving products of unmeasured states and unknown parameters, the EKF is shown to possess a semi-global region of asymptotic stability, given the assumption of observability and controllability along estimated trajectories. The stability of the new SDDRE filter is discussed.
njit-etd1999-060 (162 pages ~ 5,832 KB pdf)
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Created January 29, 2008